How to create AWS Lambda function with PowerCLI to access VMConAWS?

AWS Lambda in a nutshell

Lambda is an AWS offering to build serverless applications. It helps you to run code without provisioning or managing servers. The Lambda functions can be invoked directly through API calls or in response to events. AWS will charge the customer only for the compute time consumed by Lambda function, so no need to pay for idle time. You can learn more about lambda here.

AWS Lambda, PowerShell and PowerCLI

The code you run on AWS Lambda is uploaded as a ‘Lambda Function’. AWS Lambda natively supports PowerShell as scripting language. It helps us to write Lambda functions in PowerShell which includes commands from PowerCLI modules.

Let us see the steps to create a PowerShell based Lambda Function to get the list of VMs from a VMware Cloud on AWS SDDC. As of now the AWS Code Editor doesn’t support writing or editing PowerShell based Lambda functions. The steps discuss how to create the Lambda functions offline and deploy them in AWS Lambda.

Step 1 : Install PowerShell Core.

The Lambda functions in PowerShell require PowerShell Core 6.0, Windows PowerShell isn’t supported. If you have PowerShell Core 6.0 or above already installed, skip to step 2. The environment variable $PSVersionTable will help you to find the PowerShell version and Edition.

I’ve used Powershell Core v6.2.1 which can be downloaded from PowerShell GitHub repo.

1.1 Goto > Assets > and download the Package suitable for your OS, mine is Windows 10 and the bundle ‘PowerShell-6.2.1-win-x64.msi’ worked fine.

1.2 Once downloaded, double-click the installer and follow the prompts.

Step 2 : Install .NET Core 2.1 SDK.

Because PowerShell Core is built on top of .NET Core, the Lambda support for PowerShell uses the same .NET Core 2.1 runtime for both .NET Core and PowerShell Lambda functions. The .NET Core 2.1 SDK is used by the Lambda PowerShell publishing cmdlets to create the Lambda deployment package. The .NET Core 2.1 SDK is available at .NET downloads on the Microsoft website. Be sure to install the SDK and not the runtime installation.

Step 3 : Install Powershell module ‘AWSLambdaPSCore’

Open PowerShell Core and run the following command to install ‘AWSLambdaPSCore’ module.

Install-Module AWSLambdaPSCore -Scope CurrentUser

The following are the commands available in module ‘AWSLambdaPSCore’

Step 4 : Install PowerCLI

If you already have PowerCLI modules installed in Powershell Core, skip this step.

Open PowerShell Core and run the following command

Install-Module VMware.PowerCLI

Step 5 : Create script from PowerShell Lambda Templates.

AWSLambdaPSCore module provides some Script Templates. Get-AWSPowerShellLambdaTemplate will list out the available templates.

We will use the template ‘Basic’ to create script ‘VMC-GetVM.ps1’ for getting the VM list from VMC SDDC.

Step 6 : Modify the script to get the VMs from vCenter located VMConAWS SDDC.

If you are new to Powershell Lambda its good to go through this articleto understand Input Object, Returning Data, Additional Modules and Logging.

Open the script VMC-GetVM.ps1 in the editor, I use VSCode. Replace the content of the script with the following script.

Note: Please ensure the version of modules marked with #Requiresstatement are same as the version of modules loaded in Powershell Core. If it’s different, then update the script with version details of corresponding modules which are loaded. The following command will help to find the versions of required modules.

Get-InstalledModule VMware.*.Sdk,VMware.*.common,VMware.vim,VMware.*.Cis.Core,VMware.*.core | select Name,Version

The values for the properties (venter, vCenterUser, etc) in the object $LamdaInput will be passed when we execute the function.

# PowerShell script file to be executed as a AWS Lambda function. 
# When executing in Lambda the following variables will be predefined.
#   $LambdaInput - A PSObject that contains the Lambda function input data.
#   $LambdaContext - An Amazon.Lambda.Core.ILambdaContext object that contains information about the currently running Lambda environment.
# The last item in the PowerShell pipeline will be returned as the result of the Lambda function.
# To include PowerShell modules with your Lambda function, like the AWSPowerShell.NetCore module, add a "#Requires" statement 
# indicating the module and version.
#Requires -Modules @{ModuleName='VMware.VimAutomation.Sdk';ModuleVersion=''}
#Requires -Modules @{ModuleName='VMware.VimAutomation.Common';ModuleVersion=''}
#Requires -Modules @{ModuleName='VMware.Vim';ModuleVersion=''}
#Requires -Modules @{ModuleName='VMware.VimAutomation.Cis.Core';ModuleVersion=''}
#Requires -Modules @{ModuleName='VMware.VimAutomation.Core';ModuleVersion=''}

# Uncomment to send the input event to CloudWatch Logs
#Write-Host (ConvertTo-Json -InputObject $LambdaInput -Compress -Depth 5)

$vCenter = $lambdainput.vCenter
$vCenterUser = $lambdainput.vCenterUser
$vCenterPassword = $lambdainput.vCenterpassword
Connect-VIServer $vCenter -User $vCenterUser -Password $vCenterPassword
$vmlist = get-vm
Write-Host $vmlist.Name

Save the script.

Step 7 : Reduce the size of package

In next step we will publish the Lambda Function. While publishing, a deployment package that contains our PowerShell script ‘VMC-GetVM.ps1’ and all modules declared with the #Requires statement will be created. But the deployment may fail since the package with listed PowerCLI modules will exceed Lambda’s hard limit on Package size, ie 69905067 bytes. In that situation the following error will be thrown.

To avoid that, as a workaround, we’ve to reduce the package size by cutting down the size of PowerCLI modules. When I checked ‘VMware.VimAutomation.Core’ is the largest module which is due to  Remote Console files included in the module.

Browse to the following path and move the folder ‘VMware Remote Console’ to Documents.


Step 8 : Create IAM role to access CloudWatch Log and to execute Lambda.

Login to AWS Console and navigated to IAM. Create new role ‘lambda_basic_excution’ with the policy ‘CloudWatchLogsFullAccess’.

Step 9 : Publish to Lambda

To publish our new PowerShell based Lambda function, let’s execute the following command from Powershell Core.

Publish-AWSPowerShellLambda -ScriptPath <path>\VMC-GetVM.ps1 -Name RDPLockDown -Region <aws region> -IAMRoleArn lambda_basic_excution

It will take a while to create the package and deploy to AWS Lambda.

Step 10 : Configure environment variable.

Once the function is deployed, login to AWS Console and navigate to Lambda. Select the newly created function ‘VMC-GetVM’

Set the environment variable HOME to /tmp.

Step 11 : Install AWSPowerShell module.

To execute the newly created function from PowerShell Core we need the module ‘AWSPowerShell’. Run the following command to install it.

Install-Module AWSPowerShell

Step 12 : Execute the function

From the editor (VSCode) create new file LambdaExecute.ps1 and copy the following code.

$payload = @{    vCenter =  '<FQDN of vCenter in VMConAWS>'    vCenterUser = '<vCenter User>'    vCenterpassword = '<vCenter Password>'} | convertto-json Invoke-LMFunction -FunctionName VMC-GetVM  -Payload $payload

Once the execution completed you can see the list of VMs in CloudWatch Logs.

From AWS Console go to CloudWatch > Log Groups and select ‘ /aws/lambda/VMC-GetVM’ and click on latest log stream.

You can see the VMs list in the Message!

PowerCLI to find vCPU to pCPU ratio and vRAM to pRAM ratio

I was in search for a script to generate report on vCPU to pCPU ratio and vRAM to pRAM at cluster level in a vCenter. Found couple of interesting community threads which address part of the requirements. Thought to consolidate (or extract:) ) the code and created the following. The report will be generated as CSV file.

[crayon lang=”powershell”]


$outputFile = “C:\CPU-Memory-Ratio.csv”
$VC = “vCenter Name”

##Connect to the vCenter
Connect-VIServer $VC -User “test” -Password “test”

$Output [email protected]()

Get-Cluster | %{
$hypCluster = $_

## get the GenericMeasureInfo for the desired properties for this cluster’s hosts
$infoCPUMEM = Get-View -ViewType HostSystem -Property Hardware.CpuInfo,Hardware.memorysize -SearchRoot $hypCluster.Id |
Select @{n=”NumCpuSockets”; e={$_.Hardware.CpuInfo.NumCpuPackages}}, @{n=”NumCpuCores”; e={$_.Hardware.CpuInfo.NumCpuCores}}, @{n=”NumCpuThreads”; e={$_.Hardware.CpuInfo.NumCpuThreads}},@{n=”PhysicalMem”; E={“”+[math]::round($_.Hardware.MemorySize / 1GB, 0)}} |
Measure-Object -Sum NumCpuSockets,NumCpuCores,NumCpuThreads,PhysicalMem

## return an object with info about VMHosts’ CPU characteristics

$temp= New-Object psobject
$datacenter = Get-Datacenter -Cluster $hypCluster.Name
$NumVMHosts = if ($infoCPUMEM) {$infoCPUMEM[0].Count} else {0}
$NumCpuSockets = ($infoCPUMEM | ?{$_.Property -eq “NumCpuSockets”}).Sum
$NumCpuCores = ($infoCPUMEM | ?{$_.Property -eq “NumCpuCores”}).Sum
$vmdetails = Get-VM -Location $hypCluster
$NumvCPU = ( $vmdetails | Measure-Object NumCpu -Sum).Sum
$VirtualMem= [Math]::Round(($vmdetails | Measure-Object MemoryGB -Sum).Sum, 2)
$PhysicalMem = ($infoCPUMEM | ?{$_.Property -eq “PhysicalMem”}).Sum

##Calculating the vCPU to pCPU ratio AND vRAM to pRAM ratio.

if ($NumvCPU -ne “0”) {$cpuRatio= “$(“{0:N2}” -f ($NumvCPU/$NumCpuCores))” + “:1”}
if ($VirtualMem -ne “0”) {$memRatio= “$(“{0:N2}” -f ($VirtualMem/$PhysicalMem))” + “:1”}

$temp | Add-Member -MemberType Noteproperty “Datacenter” -Value $datacenter
$temp | Add-Member -MemberType Noteproperty “ClusterName” -Value $hypCluster.Name
$temp | Add-Member -MemberType Noteproperty “NumVMHosts” -Value $NumVMHosts
$temp | Add-Member -MemberType Noteproperty “NumPCPUSockets” -Value $NumCpuSockets
$temp | Add-Member -MemberType Noteproperty “NumPCPUCores” -Value $NumCpuCores
$temp | Add-Member -MemberType Noteproperty “NumvCPU” -Value $NumvCPU
$temp | Add-Member -MemberType Noteproperty “vCPU-pCPUCoreRatio” -Value $cpuRatio
$temp | Add-Member -MemberType Noteproperty “PhysicalMem(GB)” -Value $PhysicalMem
$temp | Add-Member -MemberType Noteproperty “VirtualMem(GB)” -Value $VirtualMem
$temp | Add-Member -MemberType Noteproperty “vRAM-pRAMRatio” -Value $memRatio


$Output | Sort-Object Account | Export-Csv -NoTypeInformation $outputFile


Output in table format :

[table id=4 /]

Ref :


Steps to find NAA ID of a RDM LUN mapped to a Windows Volume


Customer requested to increase the windows volume T:. The mentioned volume is a RAW LUN located in EMC VMAX storage. To expand the LUN storage team needs NAA ID (or WWN) of the LUN.

Its easy to find the naa id of a LUN from windows Guest OS with the help of EMC’s Inquiry (inq) tool. Please find the steps below to fetch the naa id with inq tool.



  1. Download the inq tool to the VM from following hyperlink.
    1. inq
  2. Open a CMD window.
    1. Go to RUN -> cmd
  3. CD to the directory where inq is downloaded.
  4. Find the device associated to the windows volume T:.
    1. Run the command inq -winvolwinvol
    2. Here the Device name is PHYSICALDRIVE4.
  5. Find the NAA id of the LUN associated to the Device PHYSICALDRIVE4.
    1. Run the command inq -wwn naa number
    2. You can see that naa id is displayed in WWN column!!!.

To Confirm you can use the following method.

  1. Find virtual device node of the Device.
    1. Run the command inq -btlVirtual
    2. note down the Bus (0) and Tid number (4).
  2. Open VM settings check the NAAID of the disk with Virtual Device Node “0:4”.vm settings - Virtual Devicevm settings - NAA ID

Disclaimer :

I have’nt tested it on all windows platforms and tested only with EMC storages. So use at your own risk.

Configure Virtual Machine-FEX with Cisco VIC and Nexus 5K – Part 2

Cisco-VMFEXOnce the configuration on Cisco VIC adapter is done, we need to do certain configuration settings on Nexus switch to enable VM-FEX. In this section we discuss more on the configuration settings that needs to be done specifically on on Nexus 5000 Series switch to enable VM-FEX. We also discuss on settings that needs to be done on ESXi to enable VMFEX.

A VM-FEX license is required for Cisco Nexus device. The license package name is VMFEX_ FEATURE_PKG. Incase if you are just interested in experimenting with this cool feature, a grace period of 120 days starts when you first configure this feature.

We have to do the following configuration on Nexus 5000 switch:

  1. Enable VM-FEX and other related services
  2. Define port profiles for dynamic Virtual Machine ports
  3. Enable vntag on applicable ports
  4. Install Cisco_nexus_vmfex plugin in vCenter
  5. Configure SVS connection to vCenter
  6. Activate and verify the SVS connection

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VMware vEXPERT 2014!!

On Monday VMware announced the complete list of vExpert 2014. This year 754 people were named as vExpert. I am one among them!! humbled!!.

vExpert 2014

For those unknown with the term: “vExpert” is not a technical certification or a general measure of VMware expertise. The annual VMware vExpert title is given to individuals who have significantly contributed to the community of VMware users over the past year. The title is awarded to individuals (not employers) for their commitment to sharing their knowledge and passion for VMware technology above and beyond their job requirements. Here is the complete list of vExperts 2014.

If you feel you have contributed to the VMware community and did not apply for vExpert, good news.. the Q2 applications are already open at Good luck!

PowerCLI script to list VMFS,RDM and Free LUNs in a cluster

Its always a time consuming job to find out the LUN is FREE, RDM or VMFS. The following script will help to get the details of LUNs from hosts in a cluster and will tell us the LUN is VMFS, RDM or FREE.

If the LUN is an RDM, we can see on which VM RDM is mapped. And if the LUN has VMFS volume, the datastore name will be displayed. Also the script provides the details like LUN number, Capacity and naa id (Canonical Name).

The CSV file that is produced by the script looks like this. In this example cluster has four hosts (esx1,esx2,esx3 and esx4), four LUNs (0,1,2 and 13) are shared among them.


You can see there are four values for TYPE.

1. VMFS :- VMFS volume (datastore)
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VM Inventory as e-mail with hyperlinks to vCenter Web UI and VM console

This post is to publish the enhanced version of the script PowerCLI sccript for exporting VM details to HTML. This version has the following features added.

1. Report will be sent as e-mail in HTML format.
2. Added Hyperlink to the vCenter Web Client to login.
3. Each VM will have the Hyperlink to the corresponding VM Console.

The output that is produced by the script looks like this


1. Hyperlinks will work only on vCenters with vSphere version 5.1 or above.
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Trigger e-mail when user RDP to vCenter server.

We have strict logon policy on VMware Management servers like vCenter, View connection brokers etc. We have been looking for a solution to get alerts when someone RDP to the Management Servers (all are Windows 2008/2012).

Combination of Windows Task Scheduler and PowerShell script did the tick.

1. The following Powershell script “Get-RDPUser.ps1” will get the last terminal server (RDP) session details and send e-mail to the team in HTML table format.

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